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Tropical Cyclone Research and Review  
  Tropical Cyclone Research and Review--2018, 7 (1)   Published: 2018-02-07
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Review of ESACP/WMO Typhoon Committee Development in Past 50 Years

Jixin Yu, Jinping Liu
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 1;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR01.01
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The ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee (TC) is an intergovernmental regional organization, established by Governments of ESCAP Member Countries (or Member Territory) under the joint auspices of ESCAP and WMO in 1968 to minimize the typhoon-related disaster risk reduction and damage mitigation in the region and to facilities closer regional and international cooperation. As of 2017, there are 14 Members. The Typhoon Committee has been repeatedly recognized as an outstanding regional body who has integrated the actions and plans of the meteorological, hydrological, and disaster risk reduction (DRR) components to produce meaningful results. Its work is primarily centered on reduction the damage caused by typhoons and floods, and focus on the following: 1) review the progress made in the various fields of typhoon damage prevention; 2) recommend the participating governments on plans and measures the improvement of community preparedness and disaster prevention; 3) promote the interested Governments and other interested organization for the coordination of research on typhoons; and 4) provide financial and technical support for plans and programs upon request. The paper reviewed the development of the Committee in the past 50 years in the aspects of establishment; membership, secretariat and programme components; strategic plan; and cooperative mechanism. The paper also states the areas of technical activities to be enhanced in the region and the proposals to enhance the Typhoon Committee’s regional and international collaboration mechanism on typhoon-related disaster risk reduction and damage mitigation.

Review and Prospects of Hydrological Component Development of ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee

Jinping Liu, Yoshio Tokunaga, Hyoseob Cho, Jinxing Wang
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 11;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR01.02
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Hydrological Component has been one of three essential parts of ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. The Working Group on Hydrology (WGH) established at TC 33rd Session in 2000 is the first working group among three basic components of the Committee, which has been repeatedly recognized as the most active component in the Committee who has integrated conducted successfully a number of cooperation projects and integrated actions among Members. In the past decade, WGH has implemented wide range activities under the framework of Strategic Plan of the Committee. The achievement of those cooperation projects played very important roles in promoting the capacity building on hydrological monitoring, forecasting and early warning among Members. This paper introduced the Term of Reference for WGH and its high priorities, and summarized the activities conducted in recent decade. The paper also reviewed the progresses in TC Members on hydrological observation and monitoring network, hydrological data collection and transmission, hydrological information and forecasting, and establishment of flood forecasting system. The paper also pointed out the development direction and the area to be enhanced for hydrological component in future, including: (1) application of QPE/QPF in flood forecasting and establishment of the coupled hydro-meteorological modeling; (2) development of impact-based, risk-based and community-based flood forecasting and warning system, including storm surge, urban flood, sediment disaster (flash flood, landslide and mudflow); and (3) application of internet of things (IOT), big data, cloud computing, and mobile internet in flood monitoring, forecasting and early warning, and better response, particularly in flood inundation mapping and QPE/QPF products application.

Training and Research under the Typhoon Committee

Tsz-cheung LEE, Edwin S.T. LAI
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 23;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR01.03
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The ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee Training and Research Coordination Group (TRCG), formerly known as the Typhoon Research Coordination Group, has served Members of the Typhoon Committee for more than 20 years. As evident from the change of its name, TRCG has since extended its scope of activities from research to training with a view to bridging the technological gap and enhancing forecasting capability among Members as the development of technology continues to gather pace in recent decades. While the Typhoon Committee right from its early days has been visionary in establishing the three components of meteorology, hydrology and disaster risk reduction (DRR) within its organizational structure, the need for closer collaboration and synergy among the three components has become even apparent and critical as we enter the age of Big Data and face up to the multi-faceted impacts and environmental issues brought about by climate change. As such, TRCG in recent years has also taken on the responsibility of promoting cross-cutting research and training activities in support of the Committee’s Strategic Plan. This paper summarizes the initiatives undertaken by TRCG and the challenges that lie ahead.

Experiments on Impact-based Forecasting and Risk based Warning of Typhoon in China

Li Wei, Jiaying Li, Xuan Yang
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 31;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR01.04
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Typhoon is one of the disastrous weather systems that usually occur in summer and autumn in China’s coastal regions. Gales and rainstorms brought by typhoon can directly cause serious loss in economy and also induce storm surge, flash flood, mud- rock flow, landslide and other secondary disasters. This article studies the impact of collapsing force of typhoon gale and the risk-based warning of typhoon rainstorm. By calculating the accumulated wind pressure and the designed wind load of bearing walls of low-rise building in coastal region, we define the damaged building index. In addition, four steps for the risk-based warning or impact forecasting for small and medium-sized river basins, flash flood, mud flows and landslides caused by Typhoon rainstorm are introduced, which include understanding vulnerability of disaster carriers, developing risk thresholds of disasters, improving the accuracy of QPE/QPF and the risk assessment skill.

Progress in Hong Kong’s Tropical Cyclone Forecasting and Warning Services in Recent Decades

WONG Wai-kin, CHOY Chun-wing
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 37;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR01.05
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With modern infrastructures and effective warning systems, casualties, damages and losses due to tropical cyclones (TCs) have been significantly reduced over the years in Hong Kong. Nevertheless, densely populated coastal cities like Hong Kong will need to continuously enhance its resilience to high winds, heavy rain and storm surges brought by TCs, especially with the growing concern of the challenges induced by climate change and sea level rise. By embracing the advance of remote sensing, communication and numerical modelling technology, the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) continues to improve its TC monitoring and forecasting techniques as well as forecasting and warning services to meet the needs of the society. This paper concisely reviews the major development and achievement of TC-related operation and services of HKO in recent decades, in aspects such as Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, nowcasting techniques, warning communication and public education. Future thrusts on TC forecasting and warning services of HKO will also be discussed.

Advancing the State of the Art in Operational Tropical Cyclone Forecasting at NCEP

Avichal Mehra, Vijay Tallapragada, Zhan Zhang, Bin Liu
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 51;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR01.06
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Regional Hurricane modeling systems developed and implemented into operations at National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) are now used for tropical cyclone forecast guidance in all ocean basins of the world. Lately, HWRF (Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast) modeling system has made significant improvements to the state of the art in numerical guidance for tropical cyclone track, intensity, size, structure and rainfall forecasts. These improvements come from advances in various components of the modeling system that are incorporated into the model in yearly upgrade cycles. NWS/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center’s hurricane team has also developed another non-hydrostatic hurricane model in NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) framework known as HMON (Hurricanes in a Multi-scale Ocean-coupled Non-hydrostatic) model which was implemented at NCEP operations this past year. Development of HMON is consistent with, and a step closer to developing Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) chosen Finite­ Volume Cubed-Sphere (FV3) dynamic core based global to local scale coupled models in a unified modeling framework. In this paper, operational configuration details of this new HMON model are discussed along with operational HWRF model upgrades, and their forecast performance is compared to other models. We also discuss plans for hurricane model improvements in the next two to five years.

Brief History and Recent Activities of RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Centre

Chiashi MUROI
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 57
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The RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Centre was designated by the WMO and established in 1989. The Centre provides tropical cyclone information via GTS, Typhoon Centre Website, and/or other means. The Centre also implements several regional initiatives in the western North Pacific mostly as part of activities of the Typhoon Committee. This report summarizes tropical cyclone analysis and forecast products and recent activities at the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Centre.

The Chronicle of Events of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee from 1968 to 2017

Jinping Liu, Jixin Yu
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (1): 65
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The chronicle of events of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee from 1968 to 2017 are listed in this appendix.

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