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Tropical Cyclone Research and Review  
  Tropical Cyclone Research and Review--2018, 7 (4)   Published: 2018-12-15
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Sensitivity of Hurricane Intensity and Structure to Two Types of Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization Schemes in Idealized HWRF Simulations

Jie Tang, Jun A. Zhang, Chanh Kieu, Frank D. Marks
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (4): 201;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR04.01
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This paper investigates the sensitivity of simulated hurricane intensity and structure to two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in the Hurricane Weather and Research Forecast model including 1) the GFS scheme (control run) that uses the K-profile method to parameterize turbulent fluxes, and 2) the MYJ scheme that is based on turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget for turbulent closure. Idealized simulations with these two PBL schemes show that the storm in the TKE run is stronger than that in the control run after three days into simulation. Multi-scale structures are evaluated and compared between the control and the TKE runs prior to the divergence of the model-simulated intensity to elucidate the mechanism underlying such a difference in the intensity between the two runs. It is found that the storm in the TKE run has i) a shallower boundary layer with a stronger PBL inflow, ii) stronger boundary layer convergence closer to the storm center, iii) higher vorticity and inertial stability inside the RMW; iv) stronger and deeper updrafts in regions further inward from the radius of maximum wind (RMW), and v) more convective bursts located near the RMW as compared to the control run. Angular momentum budget analysis suggests that the convergence of angular momentum in the boundary layer is much stronger in the TKE run than in the control run, which is responsible for faster spin-up of the hurricane vortex in the TKE run.

Study of Air-Sea Interaction under Typhoon and Its Application in STI

Yongping Li,Yunxia Zheng,Runling Yu,Ziqiang Duan
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (4): 212;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR04.02
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To improve the forecast of typhoon intensity and meet the requirements of operational services on marine meteorology in Shanghai Meteorological Service of CMA, a few of important scientific research projects from national, Shanghai municipal government and CMA were undertaken by Shanghai Typhoon Institute in recent 10 years. Some field experiments for typhoon were carried out. The observational researches on physical process of air-sea interaction reveal some new facts about the turbulence energy transport in the atmospheric and ocean boundary layer under typhoon. Especially there is more understanding for multi-scale response mechanism of ocean and feedback effect of each other. The simulation and prediction of typhoon intensity in the coupled ocean-atmosphere model are improved due to better expression of drag coefficient on sea surface and the sea spray effect on momentum and heat transport. Furthermore, the operational wave models were established for global northwest Pacific respectively. In particular, the sea wave and storm surge numerical prediction systems
with very high resolution including complex physical processes, such as interaction of wave and current, developed over China coastal sea. Based on the numerical model outputs some useful risk indexes for ship voyage were formed and put into use in Shanghai Marine and Meteorological Center, such as wave steepness index, ratio index of swell and synchronism oscillation index et al. The numerical marine products are widely used in daily operational work and professional services recently.

Analysis of the Cyclonic Vortex and Eva luation of the Performance of the Radar Integrated Nowcasting System (RaINS) during the Heavy Rainfall Episode which Caused Flooding in Penang, Malaysia on 5 November 2017

Diong Jeong Yik,Yip Weng Sang,Nursalleh K. Chang, et al.
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (4): 217;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR04.03
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Even though Malaysia is relatively safe from the direct path of tropical cyclones nevertheless the passage of such systems over the neighbouring seas and their tail effect present a unique challenge for forecasters. In rare situations, tropical cyclones have made landfall on Malaysian shores such as Typhoon Vamei in 2001 and Tropical Storm Greg in 1996. Hence it is vital to forecast the severity of the heavy rainfall events associated with low pressure systems to assist the disaster management agencies in decision making. Towards this endeavour, the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD) utilises a nowcasting system called Radar Integrated Nowcasting System (RaINS) which uses a combination of radar data and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) data. RaINS was adapted from SWIRLS (Short-range Warning of Intense Rainstorms in Localised Systems) developed by the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) and operationalised in MMD in August 2017. This paper studies the cyclonic vortex and synoptic features during the heavy rainfall event that caused major flooding in Penang,
Malaysia on 5 November 2017. This paper also investigates the performance of RaINS in predicting the rain cloud distribution and intensity during that event. It is found that RaINS is capable of forecasting the rain cloud distribution and intensity reasonably well in the very short-term period of 1-3 hours. The forecasts are verified by comparing the RaINS forecast data with observed radar echo.

Warnings on Tropical Cyclone for WMO Global Multi-Hazard Alert System

Yu-fai TONG, Yuen-chung Armstrong CHENG
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (4): 230;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR03.06
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The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is planning to implement a Global Multi-hazard Alert System (GMAS) to aggregate official warning1 information issued by authorities around the world and to serve as a one-stop shop to support the humanitarian organizations of the United Nations (UN), National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and other global users including the media. It aims to enhance the authority and visibility of NMHSs and other alerting authorities. To aid effective dissemination of warnings to GMAS, the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) was considered as a standard and robust format to use. In respect of GMAS infrastructure, the World Weather Information (WWIS) and the Severe Weather Information Centre (SWIC) of WMO as well as the WMO Alert Hub now being implemented are identified as core components, among others. The SWIC is being upgraded with GIS capability for displaying authoritative warnings and tropical cyclone (TC) information, and for use as a display platform of GMAS. Apart from warnings from NMHSs, authoritative TC warnings and advisories issued by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) are also indispensable information for GMAS. As the existing TC warnings and advisories, now more or less in free text format, are mainly targeted for human users and are not intended for automatic parsing by computer software, it is proposed to make available the TC advisories in a machine-readable format so that TC information can be effectively ingested into GMAS and made available to the UN humanitarian organizations, NMHSs and other global users. In this respect, some enhancement measures to TC advisories are proposed. This calls for active collaboration of Members of the Typhoon Committee in the GMAS project.

Study on Typhoon Disaster Loss and Risk Prediction and Benefit Assessment of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation

Lin Yang, Chunrong Cao, Dehui Wu, Honghua Qiu, Minghui Lu, Ling Liu
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2018, 7 (4): 237;  doi: 10.6057/2018TCRR04.05
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Based on the meteorological monitoring data of Typhoon Nesat and Haitang in Fujian Province in 2017, the data of the typhoon disaster situation and third-party evaluation of typhoon disaster prevention and mitigation benefit were investigated. By using the mean value anomaly estimation method in the similarity analysis method, it is estimated that typhoon Nesat and Haitang will cause direct economic losses of 0.8 ~ 1.8 billion yuan, and the typhoon disaster risk index evaluation model is used. The disaster risk pre-assessment of Typhoon Nesat and Haitang is carried out. The results of the study and analysis show that the pre-assessment results of Typhoon Nesat and Haitang are basically consistent with the actual disaster situation. The disaster loss was reduced to the minimum. According to the third party evaluation and investigation, it was concluded that the contribution rate of reducing economic benefits was 75% in Fujian Province for preventing and landing double typhoons Nesat and Haitang. Mainly reflected in the ship return to the port to avoid the wind, geological hazards prone to the
site construction and cage culture danger removal reinforcement and other links; The contribution rate of reducing casualties is 86, mainly reflected in fishermen disembarkation and personnel transfer to safety emergency shelter and other links. The benefit of this double typhoon disaster prevention and mitigation in Fujian Province is about 0.6 billion yuan to reduce the direct economic loss. According to the investigation, the overall satisfaction of the double typhoon meteorological service is 91.0 points. Typhoon early warning information service convenience satisfaction is 91.4 points, early warning information accuracy satisfaction is 87.2 points, government departments strong anti-Taiwan disaster reduction organization, linkage departments participate in disaster
prevention and mitigation high. However, there is a gap between public awareness and participation in typhoon disasters.

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